Burj ... One dificulty faced in the design of this marvelous structure was the structural aspect. The Khalifa's Tower and Podium structures are currently under construction (Figure 3) and the project is scheduled for topping out in 2008. Similar to Burj Khalifa, as each wing is buttressed by the other two, therefore, the stability of the structure is greatly enhanced. As it rises from a flat base, setbacks occur at each element in an upward spiraling pattern, reducing the tower’s mass as it reaches skyward. Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. The raft was constructed in four (4) separate pours (three wings and the center core). The height of the multi-use skyscraper has "comfortably" exceed the previous record holder, the 509 meter (1671 ft) tall Taipei 101. An image of the Burj Khalifa is shown in Figure 1. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsionally. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. Market: Commercial + Office, Hospitality, Mixed Use, Residential, National Geographic Features Burj Khalifa and William Baker in Engineering Marvels Series, The Man Behind the Wonders – Bill Baker Reveals the Secrets of Structural Engineering, William F. Baker in The Engineers on BBC World Service, Structural Engineers Association of Illinois, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI), Award of Merit: World Voices Sculpture, Burj Khalifa Lobby, GCC Technical Building Project of the Year, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure, International Projects Category: Outstanding Project, National Council of Structural Engineers Association, Special Recognition for Technological Advancement, 875 North Michigan Avenue – Structural Engineering, Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) – Structural Engineering, Poly Real Estate Headquarters – Structural Engineering, Poly Corporation Headquarters – Structural Engineering. Local aggregates were utilized for the concrete mix design. The wall thicknesses and column sizes were fine-tuned to reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage on the individual elements which compose the structure. Structural System. The central pinnacle pipe weighs 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) and has a height of 200 m (660 ft). d) Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m (2,716.5 ft). Khalifa is designed as an all + 585.7m reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. Torsion is the fifth mode with a period of 4.3 seconds. The groundwater in which the Burj Dubai substructure is constructed is particularly severe, with chloride concentrations of up to 4.5%, and sulfates of up to 0.6%. The decision to build Burj Khalifa was based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower as well as keep the structure simple and constructability. The context of the Burj Dubai being located in the city of Dubai, UAE, drove the inspiration for the building form to incorporate cultural, historical, and organic influences particular to the region. Phase 2: 3 Boreholes drilled with cross-hole geophysics. Each wing buttresses the other through a hexagonal central core as shown in figure-2. At each setback, the building's width changes. Rising 828 meters over the desert metropolis of Dubai, the Burj Khalifa tower is the world's tallest structure. Overview Structural System Foundation Lateral Resisting System Loads Main Elements The solid reinforced concrete raft is 3.7 meters (12 ft) thick and was poured utilizing C50 (cube strength) self consolidating concrete (SCC). The Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة, ; pronounced English: /ˈbɝdʒ_kə'li:fə/), known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009. The wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة ‎, "Khalifa Tower") is an extremely tall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates named after Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and is the tallest building ever built, at 828 metres (2,717 feet).Before the building opened, it was called Burj Dubai.The building is 162 stories high. Beyond its record-breaking height, the Burj Khalifa incorporates new structural and construction efficiencies to reduce material usage and waste. The Dubai Municipality (DM) specifies Dubai as a UBC97 Zone 2a seismic region (with a seismic zone facior Z = 0.15 and soil profile Sc). 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